The hostilities surrounding the fall of President Doe of Liberia, clan-based or intratribal warfare in Somalia, civil strife in Ethiopia with Eritrean and Tigrean insur- gents, the civil war in Sudan, the measures taken by Mauritania against its black population in the south, and the violence in South Africa among black groups, caused many hundreds of deaths in IX some countries and thousands in others.The Sudanese govern- ment's failure to cooperate in food deliveries may lead to wide- spread starvation in southern Sudan in 1991.Following multi- party elections, Namibia joined the ranks of independent states in March.
There was significant movement away from apartheid in South Africa, and in many other sub-Saharan African countries impor- tant steps were taken toward democratic rule. SENATE AND THE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BY THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTIONS 116(d) AND 502B(b) OF THE FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1961, AS AMENDED FEBRUARY 1991 Printed for the use of the Committees on Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs of the Senate and House of Representatives respectively UMASS/AMHERST 31EDbb Dlh7b T13a 102d Conn-ess 1 f S. lst S*ss L JOINT COMMITTEE PRINT j^^-S COUNTRY REPORTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES FOR 1990 REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS U. SENATE AND THE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BY THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTIONS 116(d) AND 502B(b) OF THE FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1961, AS AMENDED FEBRUARY 1991 Printed for the use of the Committees on Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs of the Senate and House of Representatives respectively U. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1991 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. Government Printing Office Washington, DC 20402 COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island, Chairman JOSEPH R. SARBANES, Maryland ALAN CRANSTON, California CHRISTOPHER J. KERRY, Massachusetts PAUL SIMON, Illinois TERRY SANFORD, North Carolina DANIEL P. SOLARZ, New York HOWARD WOLPE, Michigan SAM GEJDENSON, Connecticut MERVYN M. Iraq's brutal invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, initiated a reign of terror and human rights abuses that reminded the world of the dangers that repressive regimes can pose to regional security and international order. MURKOWSKI, Alaska MITCH Mc CONNELL, Kentucky CONNIE MACK, Florida COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS DANTE B. HAMILTON, Indiana GUS YATRON, Pennsylvania STEPHEN J. FUSTER, Puerto Rico WAYNE OWENS, Utah HARRY JOHNSTON, Florida ELIOT L. For most of the year 1990, the gains of 1989 were being largely consolidated, in spite of major problems encountered by the countries making difficult transitions from command to ' Section 116(d)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act provides as follows: "The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, by January 31 of each year, a full and complete report regarding • • • '(1) the status of internationally recognized human rights, within the meaning of subsection (a) • • • (A) in countries that received assistance under this part, and (B) in all other foreign countries which are members of the United Nations and which are not otherwise the subject of a human rights report under this Act." Section 502(B)Cb) of the Foreign Assistance Act provides as follows: "The Secretary of State shall transmit to Congress, as part of the presentation materials for security assistance programs proposed for each fiscal year, a full and complete report, prepared with the assistance of the Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, with respect to practices regarding the observance of and respect for internationally rec- ognized human rights in each country proposed £is a recipient of security assistance." (VII) vin market economies and from totalitarian communism to democracy. The reports cover the human rights practices of all nations that receive U. foreign assistance, those nations that do not but are members of the United Nations, and those few nations that are not members of the United Nations. In the belief that the information would be useful to the Congress and other readers, we have also included reports on the few countries which do not fall into either of these categories and which thus are not covered by the Congressional requirement. SMITH, New Jersey DAN BURTON, Indiana JAN MEYERS, Kansas JOHN MILLER, Washington BEN BLAZ, Guam ELTON GALLEGLY, California AMO HOUGHTON, New York PORTER J. They also fulfill the legislative requirements of section 31 of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act and section 505(c) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended. (V) INTRODUCTION 1990 Human Rights Report This report is submitted to the Congress by the Department of State in compliance with Sections 116(d)(1) and 502B(b) of the For- eign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended.^ The legislation requires human rights reports on all countries that receive aid from the United States and all countries that are members of the United Nations.